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Your Guide to Arranging 

Bank & Debt Financing 

for Your Own Business in Canada


Revised and Updated

2017 - 2018 Edition


By: Iain Williamson








It is filled with advice and suggestions on how to successfully raise debt financing for your business. It covers 270 loan programs, sub-programs and initiatives in both the public and private sectors. It includes 593 contact addresses, phone and fax numbers together with websites, where available.

It provides you with a brief history of banking and describes the structure of the Canadian banking industry. It tells you about the types of loans which banks offer. The chapter on loan-based crowdfunding has been updated.

This 2017/2018 Edition has also been revised to cover loans and guarantees provided by the federal, provincial and territorial governments and their agencies or private sector partners. It describes loans for exporting and for businesses involved with agriculture, agrifoods, aquaculture and fisheries. It also covers micro loans and loan circles which you can access through a number of non-governmental organizations.

This book also shows you what to do before you approach your bank manager in order to present your business in the best light. It tells you how your bank manager evaluates loan applications.

Learn how to factor your accounts receivable or use chattel mortgages and real estate mortgages.

You are provided with an updated chapter on export financing.

Leasing can help you reduce cash outlay and is considered as a form of debt financing. Find out the advantages and disadvantages.

Author, Iain Williamson, is an entrepreneur, business consultant and seminar leader. His views have appeared in many newspaper articles. He has also been the guest speaker on a CBC Radio phone-in show on starting a business in a recession. In addition, he has appeared on television shows such as: CBC TV’s Venture; TVO’s MoneysWorth, and Canada Tonight of BCTV and CHCH Television.

Iain spent five years as a financial analyst and knows what makes business tick. For fourteen years he operated his own businesses in importing, high technology and manufacturing. He now operates Entrepreneurial Business Consultants of Canada and also owns a book publishing business. He holds degrees from Oxford University and from St. Andrew’s, Scotland.

Iain writes from firsthand experience which he shares with you. This book is essential reading if you are seeking debt financing.



Your Guide to Arranging Bank & Debt Financing for Your Own Business in Canada: 2017-2018 Edition; by Iain Williamson; 292 pages; Softcover; ISBN 978-1-55270-776-0; ISSN 1191-0542: published in July 2017, Canadian $94.95  


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Chapter 1 - Introduction

Debt as Opposed to Equity

Leasing as a Form of Debt Financing



Chapter 2 The Role of Banks

Way Back When

The First Gold Coins

The Emergence of "Modern Banking"

The Charging of Interest on Loans

The Globalization of World Banking

The Near Collapse of the World Banking System

Changes to the Regulatory Environment Which Will Affect Bank Financing

The Repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act

Dodd Frank Bill

The Volker Rule

Increasing Scrutiny in the UK

Canadian Banks Relatively Unscathed

The Basel Agreements

Now that There's an Attempt to Bring Big Banks to Heel

Does it Mean You Can Get a Loan More Easily?

The Banking Function

Business Financing From Banks

Financing for Established Small Businesses

Role of Banks in Small Business Financing

Over Dependence on Bank Financing

Relationship Between Small Business Owners and Their Bankers


Chapter 3 Structure of the Canadian Banking Industry

Central Banks

The U.S. Federal Reserve Board

The Bank of Canada

The Commercial Banking Function

Canada's Chartered Banks

Canada's Domestic Banks

Commercial Banking Units

Canadian Credit Unions & Caisses Populaires

Credit Unions to Compete with the Big Banks


Government Owned Banks

ABT Financial: 4-H Loan Program

Canadian Aboriginal and Métis Banks

Merchant Banks in Canada

Subordinate Financing

U.S. Investment Banks

Trust Companies


Chapter 4 Types of Loans

Types of Small Business Loans

Operating Lines

Term Loans

Floor Plan Loans

Warehouse Receipts

Overdraft Facilities

Letters of Credit

Personal Loans and Credit Cards

Commercial Mortgaging


Chapter 5 Loans by the Federal Government or its Agencies & Private Sector Partners

Canada Small Business Financing (CSBF) Program

Business Development Bank of Canada

Futurpreneur Canada

Western Economic Diversification Canada (WD)

FedNor (Federal Economic Development Initiative for Northern Ontario)

FedDev Ontario: Federal Economic Development Agency for Southern Ontario

Canada Economic Development (CED) for Québec Regions

Centres d'Aide aux Entreprises (CAE)

Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA)


Chapter 6 Loans & Loan Guarantees by Provincial/Territorial Governments or Their Agencies

Provincial Lending Institutions

Investissement Québec (IQ)

Entrepreneurship Manitoba

Manitoba Industrial Opportunities Program (MIOP)

Manitoba: Communities Economic Development Fund (CEDF)

Saskatchewan: Northern Enterprise Fund (NEF)

Saskatchewan Indian Equity Foundation (SIEF)

Alberta: Agriculture Financial Services Corporation (AFSC)

B.C: First Citizens' Fund (FCF)

Yukon: Venture Loan Guarantee Program

Däna Näye Ventures (DNV)

N.W.T. Business Development & Investment Corporation (BDIC)

Nunavut Business Credit Corporation (NBCC)


Chapter 7 Other Non-conventional Loans

Ulnooweg Development Group Inc. (UDG)

Nova Scotia: Small Business Loan Guarantee Program

Saint John Community Loan Fund

Société d'Investissement Jeunesse (SIJ)

Youth Employment Services (YES)

Réseau Québec Community Credit (RQCC) Network

Compagnie F Entrepreneurship for Women

Fonds d'Emprunt des Laurentides

Cercles d'Emprunt de Montréal

Kahnawa:ka's Economic Development Commission

Ontario: Aboriginal Loan Guarantee Program (ALGP)

Waubetek Business Development Corporation-Term Loans

Nishnawbe Aski Development Fund (NADF)

Micro Finance Program

Ottawa Community Loan Fund (OCLF)

ACCESS Community Capital Fund (ACCF)

PARO Centre for Women's Enterprise

Rise Individual Lending Program

Louis Riel Capital Corporation (L.R.C.C.)

Assiniboine Credit Union (ACU) Business and Community Financial Centre (BCFC)

Saskatchewan Indian Equity Foundation (SIEF)

Clarence Campeau Development Fund (CCDF)

Le Conseil de la Coopération de la Saskatchewan


Apeetogosan Métis Development Inc.

All Nations Trust Company (ANTCO)

Arctic Co-operative Development Fund (ACDF)

Kakivak Association


Chapter 8 Loans for Agriculture, Agrifoods, Aquaculture & Fisheries

Farm Credit Canada (FCC)

Agricultural Credit Corporation (ACC)

ACC Farmers Financial

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC)

Newfoundland & Labrador: Fisheries Loan Guarantee Program

PEI: Low Interest Loan Program for Fishers

Nova Scotia Farm Loan Board

New Brunswick: Department of Agricultural, Aquaculture and Fisheries

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA)

Beef Farmers of Ontario (BFO)

Manitoba Agricultural Services Corporation (MASC)

Saskatchewan Agriculture

Feeder Associations of Alberta Limited


Chapter 9 Preparations

Some Preliminary Steps

Preparing for a Loan Application

Discretionary Limits


Chapter 10 The Banker's Viewpoint

View from the Banker's Side of the Desk

Banker's Credit Review

Bankers' Favourite Financial Ratios


Banker's Assessment

The Final Steps


Chapter 11 The True Costs

The Costs of Borrowing

Other Services for Which Banks Charge

The Importance of Maintaining a Good Relationship

Concluding Comments on Banks


Chapter 12 Factoring

Factoring as a Method of Borrowing

Methods of Payment

Method of Financing

Advantages and Disadvantages

Who Can Factor

Where to Find Factors



Chapter 13 Loan-Based Crowdfunding

What is Crowdfunding?

What You Should Know About the Crowdfunding Loan Model

Specific Loans vs. Autolending

Crowd-Based Lending is Dependent on Prevailing Interest Rates

Types of Loan-Based Crowdfunding

Invoice-Factoring Crowdfunding

Canadian Peer-to-Peer Crowdlending Portal

Lending Loop

Lending Club





Chapter 14 Export Financing

Export Development Canada (EDC)

Financing for Canadian Companies

Financing for Foreign Buyers

Foreign Investment Financing

Bonding and Guarantees


Further Information

EDC Regional Offices

Northstar Trade Finance Inc.

Accord Financial Corp.


Camsa Inc.


National Bank of Canada: Global Trade Solutions

Desjardins: Import and Export

BNP Paribas SA


Chapter 15 Leasing

What is Meant by Leasing?

The First Type of Arrangement

The Third Type of Arrangement

Maintenance and Repair


The Leasing Company's Viewpoint

Advantages of Leasing

Disadvantages of Leasing

The Lease or Purchase Decision


How to Locate Leasing Companies


Chapter 16 Mortgaging

Chattel Mortgaging

Commercial Real Estate Mortgages


Chapter 17 Planning and Financing From the Public & Private Sectors

Self-Financing and Preparations

You Have to Prepare Yourself

Ways to Raise Venture Capital

Ways to Finance Your Business By Giving Up Some of Your Ownership

Government Financing

Export Financing

Further Information









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